Archive of ‘Brain Health’ category

Why I Love Being an EMDR Therapist

Becoming an EMDR Trained Therapist is one of the most exciting things I have ever done. It is my honor and my joy to work with persons who have carried terrible burdens of trauma and pain for many years; and to help them unload those burdens, and find healing, hope, and peace. 

Alphabet soup

The acronym EMDR stands for “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing.” That is a mouthful. I would define EMDR therapy as “a powerful way to assist your brain’s natural healing process.” This solidly-researched psychotherapy method helps people recover from trauma, PTSD, anxiety, depression, panic disorder, addiction, and many other difficulties in living. 

Your brain knows how to heal 

Each day, our brains absorb a huge amount of information. Many things happen to us, both good and bad. Our brains sift out the key information, and store it in a form that will help us handle new experiences. This is how we learn from the past, adapt to our environment, and prepare ourselves for the future. 

Your brain knows how to heal, just as your body knows how to heal. When bad things happen to us, our brain heals from them—much as your skin heals from a cut. Much of the daily healing of our brains occurs while we sleep. 

Trauma interrupts healing

Trauma interrupts the brain’s natural healing process. Trauma is an intensely disturbing or distressing experience that overwhelms our ability to cope. When you experience a trauma, your brain is unable to do its normal processing of that event. Your brain is unable to put the memory in a form that is useful for the future. Instead, the memory gets stuck in its original, raw, disturbing form—including distressing thoughts, emotions, and body sensations.  

EMDR therapy restarts healing 

 The role of an EMDR therapist is to restart your brain’s natural healing process. The therapist follows carefully-researched methods that guide your brain to heal naturally. One of my mentors compared an EMDR therapist to a midwife. A midwife assists a woman as she gives birth naturally; the midwife intervenes only when necessary. Likewise, an EMDR therapist assists a client as his or her brain heals naturally; the therapist intervenes only when necessary. 

Where did EMDR therapy come from?

In 1987, American psychologist Francine Shapiro, Ph.D., made a chance discovery. While walking through a park, thinking about a disturbing memory, she happened to be moving her eyes rapidly from side to side. After her walk, she noticed that while the memory remained, it no longer disturbed her. Fascinated, she dedicated the rest of her life to researching this phenomenon, and developing it into a powerful method for healing. Many researchers all over the world joined in her work. After Dr. Shapiro’s untimely death in 2019, EMDR research has continued. 

EMDR therapy has been extensively researched, all over the world, for over 30 years. Research has shown that EMDR therapy is effective not only for trauma counseling and PTSD recovery, but also for anxiety, depression, panic disorders, substance use and addiction, and many other mental health needs. EMDR therapy yields deep, lasting healing. For many clients, EMDR therapy yields results faster than other methods of psychotherapy. 

Eye movements

Typically, an EMDR therapist guides the client to move their eyes rapidly from side to side. In some situations, a therapist may choose tapping, or some other form of side-to-side stimulation, instead. It is thought that the side-to-side stimulation, rapidly alternating left-right-left-right, stimulates the left and right hemispheres of the brain to work cooperatively with each other in the healing process. 

EMDR therapy is safe and effective

EMDR therapy works. EMDR therapy has 30 years of solid research behind it. Highly respected health organizations—including the American Psychological Association, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and the World Health Organization—have endorsed EMDR therapy as a safe, effective, evidence-based treatment.

EMDR therapy is based on the neurobiology of the brain. Neurobiology is a field that has advanced greatly in the past 30 years. New discoveries in neurobiology show that EMDR therapy brings about real, observable, biological healing in the brain. 

EMDR therapy may be related to REM sleep

Researchers think that the rapid, side-to-side eye movements used in EMDR therapy resemble the rapid eye movements that we experience during part of the time that we are asleep. Have you ever seen a sleeping person whose eyes are moving side to side, under their closed eyelids? This is called Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. It is thought that REM sleep is an important part of our brains’ healing process. 

When the EMDR therapist guides the client to move their eyes rapidly from side to side, this may mimic REM sleep. However, during EMDR therapy, the client is wide awake and fully in control of his or her thoughts and actions. 

EMDR therapy is a holistic approach

EMDR therapy is not a quick fix. EMDR therapy is not a technique, or a collection of techniques. 

EMDR therapy is an integrated, holistic approach to mental health care. Like any other form of counseling, it is built on the solid foundation of your having a good, working relationship with your therapist. You and your EMDR therapist will take time to build a relationship of mutual trust. A good EMDR therapist will treat you with deep respect, empathy, and unconditional positive regard. He or she will notice your strengths, point them out to you, and help you believe in them.

EMDR therapy accesses the “emotional brain”

EMDR therapy helps make connections between your thinking and your feelings. EMDR therapy helps bridge the gap between your head and your heart. 

Our brains have layers. The outermost layer is the “thinking brain,” where rational thought occurs. The inner layers are the “emotional brain,” where our feelings reside, along with our survival instincts. Your “emotional brain” communicates closely with your body. You may have noticed that your emotions influence your body sensations, and vice versa. 

Trauma lodges in the “emotional brain” more than it does in the “thinking brain.” Trauma also lodges in the body. You may have read the bestseller “The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma,” by Bessel van der Kolk, M.D. The title of that book states an important truth. 

EMDR therapy differs from many forms of psychotherapy in that it directly accesses our “emotional brain.” By contrast, some forms of therapy, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), directly access our “thinking brain.” Even if you have already experienced some form of “talk therapy,” you may benefit from EMDR therapy in addition. EMDR therapy addresses a different part of your brain, and gives a different kind of healing.

Reducing the distress of a memory 

Sometimes we wish that we could erase a painful memory, but our brains don’t work that way. Attempts to numb the pain, for example with alcohol or drugs, are temporary—and have many unwanted side effects. 

EMDR therapy doesn’t erase the memory. But it reduces the distress associated with the memory. The relief that one experiences from EMDR therapy is permanent, and without side effects. 

EMDR therapy helps the mind, emotions, and body to heal from the memory. During EMDR therapy, the memory is processed into a useful form. Our brain makes sense out of it. We learn from the past so that we can cope better in the future. The distressing, volatile emotions are calmed. The body response to the memory is released. Many clients report an overall reduction in distress. 

If you have experienced a trauma, it will always be a terrible event. It will always be something that should never have happened to you. EMDR therapy doesn’t change the facts. But EMDR therapy enables you to be at peace with the past, and to look forward to the future with hope. 

Touching the memory without reliving it

During EMDR therapy, the client touches the traumatic memory without reliving it. The therapist guides the client to recall the event without being overwhelmed by it. This is like the difference between diving into the swimming pool, or just dipping your toe. For EMDR therapy, you only dip your toe. For this reason, EMDR therapy is gentler to the client than some forms of therapy that involve reliving the trauma.

Healing memories without telling the details

Surprisingly, EMDR therapy works even if the client tells the therapist very little about the traumatic memory. The client needs to recall and notice the memory and their reactions to it. However, healing does not depend on the therapist knowing any details. This is important, since sometimes a client needs to heal from a trauma that he or she cannot talk about in detail. An example would be a veteran who has served on secret missions.  

Have you experienced trauma? 

No one goes through life unscathed. Even if you do not think of yourself as a trauma survivor, you certainly have had some disturbing experiences. 

When we think of trauma, we often think of catastrophic events, such as a devastating car accident or a sexual assault. But our brains are also affected by adverse life experiences—events that may not seem major, but that may impact us. Adverse life experiences can affect us deeply if they are repeated for a long time, or if we were very young or otherwise vulnerable when they occurred. 

Are your past traumas affecting your present-day life?

If the answer is “no,” then there is no reason to revisit your past, painful experiences. There is no excuse to ask someone to revisit a painful experience—unless it is necessary for healing. 

If painful experiences from your past are truly healed, they do not harm you in the present, and they will not harm you in the future. If, on the other hand, traumas are merely “contained,” not healed, they may impact you in the future. To illustrate the difference, recall stories you have heard about veterans. 

You have probably heard stories of soldiers who experienced the horrors of war, but bravely returned to battle day after day. There was no time to heal from these wartime traumas, so the soldiers “contained” them as long as they could—sometimes for years after the battles were over. However, for some veterans, a chance event can suddenly break open the “container” that holds the traumas. Suddenly, the veteran is overwhelmed with flashbacks, nightmares, etc., that make it difficult for him or her to cope. A veteran in that situation would benefit from EMDR therapy. 

The goal of EMDR therapy is to heal your past traumas, not merely to stuff them into a “container.” “Containment” is temporary, but healing lasts. 

Lingering symptoms of trauma

You may be experiencing aftereffects of trauma that you do not recognize as such. Lingering symptoms of past trauma may include feeling ashamed, worthless, hopeless, depressed, anxious, irritable or numb; feeling emotionally overwhelmed or unable to concentrate; experiencing nightmares, flashbacks, panic attacks, chronic pain, headaches, eating disorders, substance abuse, or self-destructive behavior; constantly being on alert for danger; having blank time periods of your life about which you have few or no memories; feeling as if you or your surroundings are unreal; or feeling as if your body is not your own. 

Time and budget

A good EMDR therapist will respect your time and budget. He or she will work with you to create a treatment plan based on your goals. The purpose is to give you as much healing as possible, as efficiently as possible. You may request a short-term, solution-focused plan. Alternatively, you may seek to resolve complex trauma—if you desire deep healing from many, serious hurts.

Sometimes in the course of therapy, new issues can arise. This is true of any kind of therapy, not just EMDR therapy. If new issues arise, you and your therapist can decide together how best to handle them. 

EMDR processing of a specific memory is a well-defined project, with a beginning, a middle, and an end. At some point you will say to your therapist something like, “It was still a terrible event, but it doesn’t upset me anymore. I am at peace.” After careful checking, your therapist will say to you something like, “Congratulations! You have completed the processing of that memory. Good work!” 

Clients are smart

If you are feeling caution, hesitation, or ambivalence about trying EMDR therapy, I respect that. One of my mentors told me, “Our clients are smart. They know what they are ready for.” A good EMDR therapist will listen carefully to your needs and priorities. He or she will follow your sense of urgency. He or she will respect your sense of caution. Together you will create a plan for how EMDR therapy can best help you. 

In collaboration with your therapist, you may choose to start very gently, for example by naming a current source of anxiety in your life, and working to reduce your suffering about this current stressor. Alternatively, you and your therapist may decide together that you are ready to address a major trauma in your past that is impacting your life today. 

Key takeaway

EMDR is a powerful form of therapy that gives deep healing. For me it is a great privilege to assist in my clients’ natural healing process. I am often in awe as I witness the beautiful way in which my clients’ brains achieve healing, wholeness, and peace.  

[I wish to thank Helen Harris, Ed.D., LCSW-S, Rick Levinson, LCSW, Kasey Salyer, LCSW-S, and Trina Welz, LPC-S, for teaching me the above material. I also referred to a paper by Janina Fisher, Ph.D.] 

Written by: Catherine C. Stansbury, LMSW, supervised by Melissa L. Gould, LCSW-S. Catherine is a therapist here at Austin Family Counseling. She is an EMDR Trained Therapist specializing in trauma therapy for adults. She has a Master of Social Work from Baylor University. She is a Certified Practitioner of the MBTI, trained by The Myers & Briggs Foundation; a PAC Certified Independent Consultant, trained by the Positive Approach to Care organization; an associate member of the Aging Life Care Association; and an associate member of the EMDR International Association (EMDRIA).


5 Signs Your Child May Be Addicted to Technology

Should I be concerned about my child’s screen time?

This is a question I hear frequently. The COVID pandemic caused a significant increase in the amount of time our children spend online each day, and many parents have concerns about their child’s technology use.  In today’s world, it would be nearly impossible to avoid screens entirely (and most people would not want to!), but when is it too much?  At what point should we start to worry about the effects of those hours our kids spend online?

There is No Escaping Technology

Between television, YouTube videos, games like Minecraft and Roblox, virtual communication platforms like Discord, and social media apps like Instagram and TikTok, kids are completely saturated with virtual media.  Even when parents are able to help kids abstain from certain types of technology, the enmeshment of tech into schools, paired with social pressures, makes limiting tech an extremely challenging task.

You Are Not Wrong to Be Afraid

Research on the effects of technology use on the developing brain is not lacking.  There are numerous studies that have returned potentially problematic, even downright concerning results.  A 2019 study that looked at brain scans of preschoolers found that children who used screens longer than the recommended (1 hour per day) had lower levels of development in their white matter – a key area in the development of language, literacy, and cognitive skills.

View that study here.

Additionally, the CDC found that the suicide rate for kids ages 10-14 doubled from 2007-2014 which happened to be the same time that social media use skyrocketed.

But how can parents know how much screen time is appropriate and when to be concerned?

5 Warning Signs that Your Child May be Addicted to Technology

  1. School work is suffering. This one can be tricky to recognize due to the overwhelming challenges the pandemic brought to school aged kids during the most recent academic year.  Take notice if your child’s change in academic performance directly coincides with increased tech use.
  2. Loss of interest in other activities.  If your child once loved playing soccer or creating art, but has lost interest and replaced that passion with a desire for screen time, some intervention may be necessary.
  3. Uncharacteristic aggression when interrupted from screen time. If you notice your child snapping, yelling, or showing uncharacteristic signs of anger when they are interrupted or asked to conclude their tech use, pay attention.
  4. Choosing to spend time online over spending time with friends or family. If your child is turning down social invitations in favor of spending more time online, there may be cause for concern.
  5. Neglecting basic needs or personal hygiene.  If you notice your child failing to care for their own basic needs (getting less sleep, skipping meals), or abandoning personal hygiene such as showering and brushing their teeth due to a preoccupation with screen time, it might be time to take action.

I think my child may be addicted to technology- what do I do now?

The good news is that technology addiction is treatable!  Children’s brains are malleable and interrupting troublesome habits now can help your child to strengthen new neural connections.  Early intervention can set a foundation that will help children learns skills to balance technology use in the future.

There are many strategies to treat mild to severe technology addiction in children and teens.  The first step would be to have a trained therapist assess your child for technology addiction. The National Institute for Digital Health and Wellness has a list of local providers trained to help your child manage technology issues.  There you can also find helpful articles on technology use and its effects on the developing brain.

If you are concerned, or unsure if your child may be struggling to balance their relationship with screens, ask a professional!  These times are difficult to navigate, and you are not alone.  There is plenty of support out there to help you and your child learn skills to manage technology use.

Want to learn more?

“Glow Kids” by Nicholas Kardaras is a great place to start to learn about the effects of technology on kids today.

“Reset Your Child’s Brain” by Victoria L. Dunkley MD has some wonderful guidance on at home interventions for tech addiction


Dementia: An Introduction

Have you been, or has your loved one been, diagnosed with dementia? Do you dread the journey that lies ahead? Here are a few facts and resources to help you face this difficult challenge.

Do not be afraid

Almost all of us who are over 50 fear that we will get dementia someday. But not many of us will actually get it. Among people who are over 65 years old, fewer than one out of 12 people (less than 8%) have dementia. Many centenarians (people over 100 years old) do not have dementia (source: The Merck Manual of Health and Aging, p. 307).  Dementia is very different from normal aging. 

What does normal aging look like? Each year, starting at age 25, our brains lose 1% of their processing speed. By age 50, we notice this, with chagrin. We also do not retrieve remembered information as quickly. Imagine how many names you learned before you were 20. Now imagine how many names you learned by age 50. When we are over 50, our “file cabinet” of names has a lot more items in it. No wonder it takes a little while to sift through that large volume of information to find the correct name when we see a familiar face, or hear a familiar voice. These are among the challenges of normal aging.

But remember that normal aging also has many advantages. At age 56, I value highly my life experiences. I would not trade in that hard-earned wisdom for the speed and agility that my brain had when it was young. As a grad student in my 50s, I was fascinated by classes about human behavior. Each concept that my professors presented was something that I could mentally illustrate with my observations of people whom I have known. 

Recall from history and literature that most cultures around the world, in most periods of history, have revered elderly persons as sources of wisdom and keepers of highly-valued traditions. Our culture might be in a minority in that it tends to glorify youth, and dismiss old age.

Get the facts

If you think that you or a loved one is experiencing some memory loss—not just normal aging—I encourage you to get the facts. As in many areas of life, even unpleasant facts are better than out-of-control fears. A good person to ask is your family doctor. He or she, or a member of the clinical staff, is likely to administer a standardized assessment at some point. There are several questionnaires for assessing memory loss that are well-researched, reliable (consistent) and valid (meaningful). These mental-status questionnaires take into account the person’s age and educational level, both of which can affect his or her scores. The questionnaires look not only at short-term memory, but also at the person’s ability to complete several different mental tasks. 

If you or your loved one scores below average for their age and educational level, that does not necessarily indicate dementia. There are several medical conditions that can mimic memory loss—but unlike memory loss, they are entirely reversible. During grad school, I interned in a medical clinic that primarily served older adults. Among my happiest moments were the times that I administered a mental-status questionnaire and found a normal result in a person whose result had previously been below average. These persons’ mental status returned to normal once they were treated for ordinary medical conditions such as urinary tract infection, vitamin B-12 deficiency, or depression. 

Safety first

If your doctor determines, after carefully eliminating all other possibilities, that you or your loved one has dementia, what comes next? Safety! You and your loved one need to think about safety, focusing on 5 areas of possible risk, namely:

  1. Driving. Is it still safe for your loved one to drive? If not, ask your doctor for help in having this difficult conversation with your loved one. What alternatives are available in your community (e.g. special public transportation services for handicapped persons, rural transportation that is sometimes covered by Medicaid, ridesharing services such as Lyft or Uber, and organizations of volunteers who serve elderly persons)? 
  2. Cooking. Sometimes persons with dementia forget to turn off burners on the stove, thereby causing fires. If needed, how can you protect against this?
  3. Medications. Sometimes persons with dementia skip doses or double-up doses of their medicines. Depending on the medicine, this can be dangerous. A first step in medication safety is to buy a pill container with a compartment for each day of the week and each time of day. Fill this pill container for your loved one each week, and check that the medicines have been consumed. Later, if the dementia progresses, you may need to hand medicines to your loved one, and watch him or her take them.
  4. Wandering. Sometimes persons with dementia get lost when they go out on walks. Even frail persons can walk surprisingly far. They may be searching with great determination for a place that they cannot find. Sometimes a person with dementia is searching for a place that no longer exists, such as a childhood home. Caring neighbors can be made aware of your loved one’s tendency to wander, so that they can gently redirect your loved one back home.
  5. Bills and taxes. Persons with dementia can inadvertently cause major financial problems by failing to pay bills or taxes, or by spending imprudently. If your loved one has been diagnosed with dementia, consider helping them find a financial services firm that can regularly pay their bills and taxes. Alternatively, try to persuade your loved one to sign a power of attorney that allows a responsible person to handle their finances for them when the need arises. 

A brain disease

Sometimes well-intentioned family members urge a loved one with dementia to try harder to remember information, or to practice skills. Unfortunately, the person with dementia cannot reduce the symptoms by trying harder. Urging them to try harder is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of dementia. Our common experience is the raising of children, who constantly learn new information and gain new skills. It is very hard for us to accept that in a person with dementia, the process goes in reverse—no matter how hard they try, and no matter how hard we try. 

Remind yourself frequently that dementia is a brain disease characterized by biological changes in the brain. Throughout the course of dementia, brain tissue is actually lost. The brain of a healthy, adult human weighs about 3 pounds. The brain of a person with end-stage dementia weighs only 1 pound. Recalling this fact can help a caregiver to be compassionate, patient, and understanding with their loved one who has dementia. Assume that at each stage of the disease, they are doing the best they can with the reduced amount of brain tissue that is left. 

An umbrella term

Dementia is an umbrella term that includes over 100 separate illnesses. Alzheimer’s is the most common form, accounting for over 60% of cases. The second most common form is Lewy Body Dementia, which has a distinctive pattern of symptoms. The third most common form is Vascular Dementia, which can result from strokes—either a major stroke, or a series of minor ones. 

Some helpful books

Here are my favorite books about dementia, with a brief description of each. 

The 36-hour day:  A family guide to caring for people who have Alzheimer Disease, related dementias, and memory loss, by N. L. Mace & P. V. Rabins. This is the classic, comprehensive guide to caring for a loved one with dementia. It can be used as a reference book: check the index for the topic you need, and read a few pages about it. 

Dementia caregiver guide: Teepa Snow’s Positive Approach to Care techniques for caregiving, Alzheimer’s, and other forms of dementia, by T. Snow. This book describes simply and briefly what life is like for a person who has dementia, at each stage of the disease; and gives practical instructions on how you as a caregiver can help the person. 

Alzheimer’s: A Broken Brain, by Dementia Education and Training Program, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Available from the University of Alabama. Trigger warning: Do not look at this booklet if medical images bother you. This short booklet demonstrates in an unforgettable way that dementia is a brain disease. The booklet states 10 key facts about dementia, one sentence each. Each fact is illustrated with photos of 2 autopsied brains: the brain of someone who died from dementia, contrasted with the brain of someone who died of another cause. The difference between the brain images is dramatic. 

The whisper of the fallen oak: A family’s guide to early, middle, late, and end-stage dementia, by R. Wallace. Available from Wings of Change Publications. This booklet is a short, simple guide to the stages of dementia, and how to care for the person at each stage. 

Caregivers find meaning and purpose

Although caring for a person with dementia can be difficult and exhausting, it can also be extremely fulfilling. In 2016, researchers Cheng, Mak, Lau, Ng and Lam studied 57 caregivers of Alzheimer’s patients. The researchers identified ten positive themes that the caregivers reported, including “a sense of purpose and commitment to the caregiving role… increased patience and tolerance… cultivating positive meanings and humor… developing a closer relationship with the care recipient… and… feeling useful helping other caregivers.”

Key takeaway

The most important thing to remember about your loved one who has dementia is that he or she has the same value, dignity, and worth as you and I do.

The most important thing to remember about your loved one who has dementia is that he or she has the same value, dignity, and worth as you and I do. His or her value as a person is intrinsic, and does not depend on cognitive ability. In order to relate to your loved one, you may need to learn new skills. These skills are worth learning, because the person is worth relating to. If you make the effort to relate to a person with dementia, you will be rewarded in unexpected ways. 

[I wish to thank Laura A. Ellis, LMSW, James W. Ellor, Ph.D., D.Min., LCSW, Dennis R. Myers, Ph.D., LCSW, and Teepa Snow, MS, OTR/L, FAOTA, for teaching me the above material.] 

Written by: Catherine C. Stansbury, LMSW, supervised by Melissa L. Gould, LCSW-S. Catherine is a therapist here at Austin Family Counseling. She is an EMDR Trained Therapist specializing in trauma therapy for adults. She has a Master of Social Work from Baylor University. She is a Certified Practitioner of the MBTI, trained by The Myers & Briggs Foundation; a PAC Certified Independent Consultant, trained by the Positive Approach to Care organization; an associate member of the Aging Life Care Association; and an associate member of the EMDR International Association (EMDRIA).


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